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Sequential Superassembly of Nanofiber Arrays to Carbonaceous Ordered Mesoporous Nanowires and Their Heterostructure Membranes for Osmotic Energy Conversion

The capture of sustainable energy from a salinity gradient, in particular, using renewable biomass-derived functional materials, has attracted significant attention. In order to convert osmotic energy to electricity, many membrane materials with nanofluidic channels have been developed. However, the high cost, complex preparation process, and low output power density still restrict the practical application of traditional membranes. Herein, we report the synthesis of highly flexible and mechanically robust nanofiber-arrays-based carbonaceous ordered mesoporous nanowires (CMWs) through a simple and straightforward soft-templating hydrothermal carbonization approach. This sequential superassembly strategy shows a high yield and great versatility in controlling the dimensions of CMWs with the aspect ratio changes from about 3 to 39. Furthermore, these CMWs can be used as novel building blocks to construct functional hybrid membranes on macroporous alumina. This nanofluidic membrane with asymmetric geometry and charge polarity exhibits low resistance and highperformance energy conversion. This work opens a solution-based route for the one-pot preparation of CMWs and functional heterostructure membranes for various applications.